5 of the World’s Most Dangerous Chemicals

Germany, 1939 In a secret bunker on the German-Polish border Nazi operators were overseeing the production of a recently discovered chemical they’d code-named “Substance N” It simmered when they exposed it to air, It exploded when it stroked ocean, it was lethal when inhaled, and where reference is separated it spit out deadly hydrofluoric battery-acid. When loaded into a flamethrower and ignitedit could burn at temperatures over 2400 C The plan was to arm troops with “Substance N” and use it to defrosted allied bunkers into sizzling porridge But then after studying it for a while even the German soldiers were like “Whoa.”experiments with “Substance N” were discontinued because the Nazis decided it was to perilous to work with.Should give you some kind of sense of what we’re dealing with here when we talk about the most dangerous compounds in the world. I’m talking about things that explode when you touch them, things so deadly that if even a millionth of a gram went up your nose, it would end up killing you things that could be used to even disable you because of their totally, debilitatingly, sickening reek, and yes, substances so serious, that even the Nazis thought they were crazy. Let’s begins with what the Germans had in that secret weapons bunker They originally planned to produce 90 tons of the stuff every month but simply made about 30 tons throughout the whole war what they’d devised was chlorine trifluoride, “the worlds largest” energetic fluorinating agent known to humanity fluorinating negotiators lash other molecules apart to supersede their hydrogen atoms with fluorine the result is what pharmacists called a’ violently exothermic action ‘, in this case known as a fluorine shell it’s much more dangerous to handle than even fluorine gas, which as anyone with a degree in chemistry could tell you is not a sentence that you get to say very often it’s also a better oxidizer than oxygen oxidizers are compounds that steal electrons from other compounds in a action and they are what offset combustion possible.Chlorine trifluoride is so good at this, that it can burn stuff that sane parties might think of as non combustible, like bricks or asbestos or things that have already been burned oxidizers are likewise was just about to ignite rocket fuel and in the very short time that us rocket scientists thought about squandering this substance as a propellant, they speedily learned that this idea was bad and the early 1950 s, the first time that US scientists tried to ship chlorine trifluoride in bulk the sword container cracked and a full ton of it spilled out it burned so hot that the chemical eat through an part concrete storey and then a meter of soil and gravel beneath that One eye-witness described the shed exclusively by saying “The concrete…was on fire! ” Chlorine trifluoride is still constructed and is used by semi-conductor companies to clean their gear to within an inch of its life.The good news is that you can store it safely in a regular steel drum as long as it’s air-tight and you’re really , really careful, because, it instantaneously scorches the inside lining of the container left with a nonreactive plating of metallic fluoride. Nonreactive is not a word that we’re gonna need when talking about the next chemical on our inventory “Azidoazide azide”, “the worlds largest” explosive chemical compound ever established This twitchy little combination is a part of a class of compounds known as “High nitrogen industrious materials” And it does what it does because nitrogen merely wants to be left alone A nitrogen atom bonded with another nitrogen atom is one of the most stable molecules on earth Their electrons formation an extremely strong triple attachment with each other, which, in nature are generally simply be broken down by a molecule being hit by lightning The backbone of that bail meant that when two nitrogen atoms snarl together, they release a tremendous quantity of energy.So if you look in a molecule of AA .. We’re gonna call it AA case Azidoazide Azide is hard You can see how it gets its slam. It has 14 nitrogen atoms and because of the room the molecule was organized, None of them are in a triple bond. Instead, they’re stuck in a loosely fastened high-energy state and are dying to move to a more stable lower energy state which wants liberating a good deal of pent-up energy in the process. As a solution, AA is both most reactive and heck-a explosive. How sensitive is this stuff? Well, it’s actually hard to say, because it’s too sensitive even to measure how confidential it is.A crew of German chemists developed it in 2010 with the help of the US army, in an effort to develop more industrious combinations. And their first reported today the finding, they said, and I paraphrase, “The sensitivity of C2N14 is beyond our capabilities of measurement … … even the smallest possible loadings in collapse& friction-tests led to explosive decomposition.” To give you a list of how touchy this nonsense is, here’s a list of things that spawn Azidoazide explode: moving it, touching it, dispersing it in solution, leaving it undisturbed on a glass dish, exposing it to bright glowing, disclosing it to x-rays, putting it in a spectrometer, turning on the spectrometer, and my beloved: ABSOLUTELY NOTHING !!! They had it in a shock-proof explosive event, in a dark climate controlled room…And it blew up! I think somebody said something mean about it somewhere, and it was like:( Censored Bleep) The contribute scientists on the team that synthesized it called it: “A very exciting discovery.” If I is cooperating with Azidoazide Azide, waking up every morning, and help to ensure that I still had all my fingers would be a very exciting discovery. Next up, let’s talk about Dimethylcadmium This is an organometallic deepen, which means it it has a molecule in which carbon has ligament with a metal In this case, that metal is Cadmium, a somewhat bad customer all on its own So far we’ve talked about compounds that explode or cover everything in unquenchable fervor And don’t get me wrong; Dimethylcadmium, it does that too But “thats really not” what realise it so dangerous It is, in all likelihood, gram-for-gram the most toxic chemical in the world It has both acute and chronic influences Which symbolizes it will kill you now AND last-minute It was first prepared by a innovator of metal organic chemistry A fellow worded Erich Krause who was from, yes, Germany It was 1917 To give you a sense of how Krause flattened he died in his lab at persons below the age of 37 after accidentally inhaling a knot of chlorine but before “thats happened” he managed to report his detection of Dimethylcadmium When you breathe it in it is absorbed instant into your bloodstream, where it basically helps as a kind of chemical chauffeur for lethal combinations of cadmium to travel all around your mas Because it’s so effective at exploit your bloodstream these votes in quickly influences your most blood-infused organs Like lungs and your kidneys and liver, forming deepens that rip electrons off the atoms of your cells But if you manage to survive your first few hours after Dimethylcadmium exposure, don’t get your hopes up.It’s also most carcinogenic, So it will take you down with cancer just to spite you This trash is so potent that, as an airborne vapor only a few millionths of a gram per cubic rhythm of breeze matches the legal security limits But if you shed it, how are you going to clean it up? Water? Well, where reference is greetings with water it renders both lots of heat and lots of hydrogen gas Which is combustible so, yeah, it explodes in sea Maybe you could sweep it up? Eeuhh friction impels it ignite Might wanna simply try waiting for it to decompose? Well, it will do that It’ll pattern a crust of dimethyl cadmium peroxide, which is a friction-sensitive explosive So you’re just one shoe-scuff away from “KABLAMMO” And on top of it all the chemical has an odor that has been described as foul, sickening, metallic, and horrid But that’s nothing compared to our next chemical: Thioacetone It won’t explode, or start flamings, or even give you cancer Compared to other substances on the listing it’s like a cute little fluffy bunny If that charming little fluffy bunny had the MOST UNGODLY STINK YOU CAN IMAGINE That’s right, Thioacetone takes the loot for The World’s Smelliest Chemical It’s a thiol, an organic combination in which a carbon atom is ligament to a sulfur-hydrogen pair They’re all gross A skunk’s scatter expends two different thiols to eye-watering effect Most sulfur-containing complexes are released by decomposing flesh which is a reason why we would want to be very good at being able to detect them and too not think that it smells…Good But when it is necessary to bad flavors Thioacetone makes the stinky, severely unappetizing patty You can smell one remove of this substance, roughly instantaneously, from half a kilometer away In the 1960 s a vial of the stuff fell off a shelf in a research lab People were chucking their cookies in buildings 200 meters away But the greatest example of thioacetone’s silent-but-deadly strength comes from the German city of Freiburg where in 1889 chemists at a soap plant were, reportedly, working on a larger molecule known as tri-thioacetone, which is used as a seasoning and a fragrance But, when they broke it apart into thioacetone proletarians started precipitating affliction Spontaneous outbreaks of vomiting were reported in the bordering places It led to the evacuation of the whole city There might be a lot to learn about thioacetone and thiols in general but, understandably, scientists are not truly scurrying to be considered in it And lastly, there’s the most significant astringent operator in the world The most dangerous acid ever devised by humanity Fluoroantimonic acid Because what index of dangerous substances would be complete without a super acid What makes an battery-acid an acid is its ability to donate a proton to another molecule nearby it And a proton is just a hydrogen atom that’s lost its electron This process is called Protonation And an acid’s forte is determined by how ready it is to give up that proton A feeble acid, acetic acid for example Which is just the undiluted form of vinegar will drag its foot about protonating other molecules Most of it will merely sit there doing nothing But a strong acid like sulfuric acid’ll swipe that proton in the air like a beach volleyball at springtime smash And remember from Substance N how crazy fluorine is Well, fluoroantimonic acid is ten quadrillion times stronger than sulfuric acid This molecule is praying for an excuse to fly apart Formerly it’s lost its hydrogen atoms the remaining atoms of fluorine and another element, antimony rip through everything else around them, rending electrons off nearby molecules and leaving just organic gunk in their wake Peculiarly evoking is that fluorine really likes to bond with calcium So once the acid snaps through the fatty organic tissues of your surface and muscles the fluorine will burn through your bones The only way to store fluoroantimonic acid is in Teflon containers Teflon, by the way, is held together by carbon-fluorine attachments which are the single strongest attachment in organic chemistry We don’t actually know a great deal about this acid because it’s so hard to do experiments with it You can’t settled it in a syringe or on a move It fees through glass like it’s cotton candy You can’t set it under a ga bonnet – it’ll eat the smog bonnet All you can really do is, just like, look at it Ideally from……very far away Thank you for watching this particularly dangerous SciShow infusion Thank you especially to our Subbable subscribers who help us make this show for them And for everyone else, to find our how you can support us you can go to subbable.com And if you want to keep getting smarter with us? 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