Lecture 50 : Inorganic Fibres : Asbestos, Textile Glass and Optical Fibres

[ sound] Hello everybody.[ vocalized-noise] So, welcome back to theclass once again, so where we are talking about the asbestos fibers. And what we have seen[ vocalized-noise] thatone particular hodgepodge, that signifies, one particular group can be useful[ vocalized-noise] formaking these particular type of fibers[ vocalized-noise ]. So, the purpose of this seeing is that wecan have a diaphragm, we know that a particular type of filtration process can be achievedthrough[ vocalized-noise] a diaphragm. Diaphragm can be a piece of cloth likewise[ vocalized-noise ]. So, chlor alkali diaphragm sheaths wherewe can use it can have a normal implementation as the sheath also[ vocalized-noise ]. So, the chlor alkali process we already seenearlier in our one of our previous class, various first-class mostly[ vocalized-noise] we have discussed the chlor alkali process. So, the chlor alkali diaphragm tissue[ vocalized-noise] used for making the chlorine. So, there we can use that particular diaphragmand these diaphragm is likely to be[ vocalized-noise] made of your this particular asbestos textile.[ vocalized-noise] Then we can use this asbestos fabric as vinyl floor tiles, because these are the correspondingsupport material because the original material can be of vinyl polymer, but the vinyl polymercan have the support on the asbestos textile[ vocalized-noise ]. So, vinyl floor tiles we know that the differenttypes of floor tiles or the floor sheets we basically use[ vocalized-noise] which is foldablealso.[ vocalized-noise] Then the flooring expanse alsotiles are very hard and interpreted their very thickness is also very high.[ vocalized-noise] Then sometimes the vinylbased adhesives are also there, where some sum of asbestos is there.[ vocalized-noise] Then as a very useful fire proofing cloth, so we can have the fireproof for your wallsof the dwelling,[ vocalized-noise] then any other places where we can have some chances of catchingfire even in the laboratories[ vocalized-noise] or the industry,[ vocalized-noise] becausethis particular substance the asbestos will not very quickly take fire or catch fire.[ vocalized-noise] So, one such example isyour gloves that which are capable of stand a very high temperature, because it can have alsothe insulation material[ vocalized-noise ]. So, gloves, a gauntlet made use of your asbestosmaterial which can withstand a very high temperature also you can situated that mitt and we can holdsome hot rod also[ vocalized-noise ]. So, it can have a good heat opposition aswell as it can have a ardor proofing fabric likewise because this with this glove[ vocalized-noise] you are eligible to hold any open fire too[ vocalized-noise ]. Then different types of industrial and marinegaskets we can use. So, the different kinds of industrial andmarine gaskets because that[ vocalized-noise] whether we can have some responsibility, that means, industrial gaskets which is filling some part[ vocalized-noise] or which in some you canhave some valves.[ vocalized-noise] So, valves we are able to have somegaskets we know that most of the time it is the rubbery material,[ vocalized-noise] butthe asbestos can also be a very good material for as the gaskets. Because that asbestos weaves we know[ vocalized-noise] that we can put in the plumbing also in for the water lines too[ vocalized-noise] wecan use this as the correspond strand.[ vocalized-noise] Then different kinds of thermal hose isolation, because the thermal hose is there and we dontwant to go for loss in that particular temperature of the thermal pipe .[ vocalized-noise] So, we made this particularcovering with that of your asbestos substance.[ vocalized-noise] Then filters of removingfine particles, just now what we have seen in case of your preparation of your chlorineas the sheath drawing process, or the diaphragm realizing process. So,[ vocalized-noise] if we can uniformlyput those corpuscles or those fibers that is asbestos fibers then we can have some threadingof those asbestos fibers,[ vocalized-noise] so penalize mesh size can be produced such thatonly small-time specks of a particular mesh such as your 10 or 20 mesh immensities can passthrough that particular layer others will be retained. So, it can be used as a filtering materialthat intends, the water; that signifies, the cellulose located filter paper cannot be useful sometime[ vocalized-noise ]. So, asbestos based filtering textile, filteringmembrane or diaphragm can also be useful sometime[ vocalized-noise ]. Then one more important thing is that thedrilling fluid supplements, because when we drill that face of our earth to get liquid, to get lubricant, to get gas, we use some teaching flowing. So, drilling fluid can be mixed with theseasbestos fabric. So, it has some good advantage for additionof this particular asbestos material, asbestos fiber or powder sometime[ vocalized-noise] to get a good type of these teaching additives for this your instructing fluid.Then HVAC flexible pipe connector. Because nowadays for[ vocalized-noise] thiscommon the heating, that vacuum-clean, then ac thing in the apartment or the laboratories or the industryplaces,[ vocalized-noise] we can have the in live forming of the heating process, vacuumof that particular that entails, we want to evacuate some time and that the natural acprocess[ vocalized-noise] that entails, cooling of the breath or the heating of the air is required, and we can supply fresh air from the outside[ vocalized-noise] we can supply through someduct to the different laboratories, different apartments and different cavities mostly.[ vocalized-noise] So, we are able to have the flexibleduct and the majority of them passages are made of with these asbestos materials. So,[ vocalized-noise] very useful use andthe consumption of these making this flexible pipe connector is with that for becoming thedifferent HVAC legions.[ vocalized-noise] Then what we see that we can have four important asbestos types.What we can find now[ vocalized-noise] thatwe can have four important asbestos categories and these asbestos types what we have seenthat[ vocalized-noise] by honour we can have,[ vocalized-noise] so chrysotile, crocidolite, anthophyllite and actinolite. So, these are the lists mostly and sometimesit can be very difficult likewise to remember.[ vocalized-noise] But if we think in termsof their corresponding substance form[ vocalized-noise] will always be interestedas an inorganic pharmacist that what should be your corresponding compound arrangement ofthese four different assortments.[ vocalized-noise] So, first one basically the chrysotile, chrysotile mostly the chrysotile is your usual materialwhich is basically magnesium silicate. As we all know what we use day-to-day as difficultdifferent types of talcum powder. What is talc?[ vocalized-noise] Talc or the talcum powderis nothing but your hydrated magnesium.[ vocalized-noise] So, “hes also” that sortof hydrated magnesium silicate of different structure.[ vocalized-noise] So, chemical compositionof information materials of this asbestos type is typically that of your talc or talcum powder[ vocalized-noise] is basically made up of your merely magnesium silicate which is hydratedof different level.[ vocalized-noise] Then crocidolite, crocidolite is basically is befitting one where you have iron youdont have any magnesium you have sodium and iron along with a huge silicate structure .[ vocalized-noise] So, all these materialsare a very complex silicate structure. So, mostly these are silicate information.[ vocalized-noise] So, we are studying we arestill continuing with those silicate fabrics of very helpful in the different purposes.[ vocalized-noise] Then anthophyllite anthophyllite is again we imparting the first list of magnesium theniron,[ vocalized-noise] and of all categories of the silicate information and the large numberof hydroxy radicals are there[ vocalized-noise ]. So, those hydroxy groups is likely to be the terminalone attached to your silicon or can be attached to your the corresponding metal ions centre .[ vocalized-noise] Then actinolite, actinoliteis basically based on your calcium magnesium thing.[ vocalized-noise] So, when you find this chemical composition, the authorities concerned will always meditate or talk about the differentstructures,[ vocalized-noise] and those different formations of these materials are of differenttypes[ vocalized-noise ]. So, chrysotile and amphibole asbestos havea considerable[ vocalized-noise] force on their physical belongings.[ vocalized-noise] So, the arrangement andthe structure will tell us that no it can have a different physical property as wellsuch that you can have a different design. So, it can[ vocalized-noise] mostly modifyits characteristics or the physical dimensions or the physical behavior[ vocalized-noise ]. So, chrysotile asbestos fibers consists ofbundle of hollow micro fibers. What are those?[ vocalized-noise] Those are packets of hollowmicro fiber, so those that is why these are interesting to know what are known as thedifferent types of micro fibers, we known as fibrils.So, these are the conventional call what we usein the biological oath too[ vocalized-noise] in the bio organic chemistry or the biochemistrywe know the the protein fibrils.[ vocalized-noise] So, the fibrils are hollowmicrofibers nothing but this. So, you have the very small channel. So, these are the hollow microfibers[ vocalized-noise] of 15 to 40 nanometer in diameter. So, diameter is also not very much it is onlywithin 50 nanometer[ vocalized-noise ]. So, when we go for these asbestos fibers, so we can have a particular process. So, industrial distillation or industrial quarantine[ vocalized-noise] can be used through a cool process. How it starts? It starts with humbling and slackening or batchesof[ vocalized-noise] the raw asbestos cloths which are coming out of the rock-and-roll.[ vocalized-noise] So, the cliff material isa starting substance. So, the bulk rock-and-roll fabric we can go for theloosening[ vocalized-noise] of those cliffs with the jaw crushers. So, mouth is there. So, the mouths we know[ vocalized-noise] thatthe mouths can take out and then remove those fibers or the[ vocalized-noise] correspondingmicro fibers likewise.[ vocalized-noise] So, one of the following options that wants two things we use mostly the mouth crushers, these arethe common instruments industrially people use all the time one is the jaw crusher[ vocalized-noise] another is the double roll mills[ vocalized-noise ]. So, the jaw crusher will separate and doubleroll mills can roll. And wrap of those particular type of asbestosmaterial like that of our jute fabric what we get which is also a plant material. So, flora textile which we are able to framed as isa very good fiber.So, asbestos is like of that of your jute, and we use it in the double roll mill[ vocalized-noise] to for their rolling we can consider thisas the wheel mills too.[ vocalized-noise] So, one particular process is known as the soaked process. When we follow this particular wet processfor realise these it enables it to for narrower fiber duration distribution to be obtained foramphibole asbestos. So, where reference is spawn these amphibole asbestos, we are therefore basically demonstrate narrower fiber span delivery. So, the deployment so everything is notuniform,[ vocalized-noise] but most of the time we will find that one particular varietyof fiber segment and its dispensation was essential[ vocalized-noise] to give a characteristicpattern and the characteristic structure.[ vocalized-noise] So, we separate it fromthe rock textile how by smash or the crushed concoction by using a hydro cyclone and the longerand shorter fibers are separated with a rotary filter. So, we have a rotating sieving[ vocalized-noise] mechanism such that the longer one will be separated from the shorter one. So, shorter are likely to be[ vocalized-noise] separatedat one point and the longer are separated out from that particular separation process .[ vocalized-noise] Now, once we have the differenttypes of these fibers, their microfiber structures, their span, and all these things are usefulbecause a particular type of behavior or special type of use or particular owned of thoseasbestos textiles are dependent upon the type, what asbestos type you have, what asbestostype we are getting from the natural quality[ vocalized-noise] or from the natural substance.[ vocalized-noise] Then where from we get that particular type of deposit like that of your geographicalorigin or geographical origin of that special rock-and-roll selection.[ vocalized-noise] Then obviously, the chemicalcomposition when you go up to that end,[ vocalized-noise] either you have magnesium, whether you haveiron and how much of silicon is there, and the silicon structure .[ vocalized-noise] Then the fiber period as we have seen just now the shorter section and the longer lengthwe can separate it out, so we can use for one particular purpose the shorter fiber duration ,[ vocalized-noise] and the longer one for the other purpose,[ vocalized-noise] then degreeof rotting if we want to degrade this. If we want to get the powder material outof those textiles, so it can also be dependent on the strength of that special information, and how quickly we can degrade this particular[ vocalized-noise] substance for our utilize. So, the largest quantity of these asbestosare the different types of asbestos composites we can constitute. So, what we see now that we can use that wecan introduce those asbestos information in some other material like that we know that in metal scienceor the polymer discipline[ vocalized-noise] that we realise some composite fabric, where thebasic material is your polymeric material.And we threw something else such that we canincrease the backbone, the durability, such structures, the its corresponding affinityfor devoting different conditions will be changed.[ vocalized-noise] So, when we use asbestos as a composite fabric or composite component to get the composites isknown as asbestos composites.[ vocalized-noise] So, these asbestos compositesare utilized, the most important application is our cement application, because we willbe seeing maybe in our today’s class or in the next class how we oblige cement are more[ vocalized-noise] handy fabric which is something we stir the inorganic chemists keep the correspondingindustrial sector because we use it large amount of cement we use it, but the basicidea or forming up all these things is your usual knowledge of inorganic chemistry[ vocalized-noise ]. So, how we get that plaster substance? So, right now when we are talking about thisasbestos textile let us know how we can improve the strength of that special plaster material.So, if we made that planneds, you can have a composite, why we prepare these composites again including word, these are the general terminology.[ vocalized-noise] The reinforcement that entails, we are increasing the strength of that particular information such that we can have some impregnatedthing[ vocalized-noise] that like that of our anchor type of thing, where reference is kept therod in the concrete, it reforms the correspond strength of this column of private buildings. So, in some other form, the reinforcementfor the concrete substance not only by the addition of the gravels or the beach,[ vocalized-noise] but the addition of the asbestos fabric will giving you the corresponding cement[ vocalized-noise] as the asbestos cement.[ vocalized-noise] Then some organic materialwe can put inside it. So, the organic material when capturing thisasbestos information as the[ vocalized-noise] ring-binder cloth as the organic ring-binder thatmeans the polyvinyl chloride[ vocalized-noise] then other synthetic rubber or the naturalrubber such as that of your neoprene rubber.[ vocalized-noise] And some of the duromersthat means, the polymeric parts having higher stability is known as duromers[ vocalized-noise ]. So, duromers can have your ring-binders which cantrap those asbestos to use these composites.[ vocalized-noise] So, where we use basicallythats why the buttres can be achieved for cement,[ vocalized-noise] can be achievedfor PVC, can be achieved for rubber, and can be achieved for the duromers. Then how we define a particular type of compositeany kind of composite is a general period.[ vocalized-noise] So, the composite when wethink in terms of the asbestos, we can consider it as asbestos composite[ vocalized-noise ]. So, we supply the fiber the asbestos fiber. When we supply these asbestos fiber to thecement material, cement is the powdery pattern what we will see[ vocalized-noise] in ournext class possibly that the powder cloth when is mixed with ocean and we allow it forsome giving hour, we get something but we can get the plaster of some building[ vocalized-noise] or we get some the correspond concrete[ vocalized-noise ]. So, when asbestos as the corresponding fiberis given, so we take one very useful or well known cement type[ vocalized-noise] is knownas the portland cement.[ vocalized-noise] So, this portland cementcan be reinforced with up to a 10 to 20 percentage[ vocalized-noise] preface of the asbestosmaterial and chrysotile asbestos is added such that you can improve the correspondingcement fabric when we go for its parallelling met as the correspond concrete realise orany other type of use.So, we see now that how we make this asbestoscement. So, if we get that, because this is a drymaterial that asbestos itself is a dry material,[ vocalized-noise] after dehydration like thatof your zeolite value we picture[ vocalized-noise] that we can get this asbestos for this particularpurpose[ vocalized-noise] that you can have this asbestos cement. So, you get that the slurry of the cement. So, asbestos will be put inside[ vocalized-noise] with asbestos fibers is filtered. So, slurry of plaster with asbestos fibersis filtered placed under moldings at a very high pressure and left to set for 24 to 48 hours. So, you examine within 1 or two days it will beset. So, asbestos cement material or asbestos concretematerial can be established[ vocalized-noise] if we have the additive of asbestos substance tothe slurry of cement.[ vocalized-noise] So, different kinds of consumer products we are able to make out of this asbestos cement, wherethis asbestos impregnated plaster rather to become the different types of timbers, differenttypes of roof singles; that signifies, asbestos roofs we all know that we can use as the asbestossheets for roofing,[ vocalized-noise] then the different kinds of pipings and the moldedproducts.So, one such is your the corrugated type ofasbestos sheet, what we can use as the roof material for shaping houses. So, we gets the idea that asbestos materialis a frequently fiber textile. So, we get a general word for this cementis the fiber cement.[ vocalized-noise] So, what is that fiber cementfiber cement is therefore a composite building[ vocalized-noise] or interpretation fabric[ vocalized-noise] used in roofing and facade commodities that necessitates, you can have the plasterof the[ vocalized-noise] walls too because of his forte and soundnes. So, we can improve. So, is a mostly a quality addition we canimprove the correspond caliber of the plaster because we know will see too that large typesof a large[ vocalized-noise] number of different types of cements are there, where your silicacontent is different, where iron oxide content is different, our alumina content is different[ vocalized-noise] or too the correspond additive of slags giving you the slag plaster[ vocalized-noise ]. So, if we have a pure variety of that cementpowder and cement gunpowder we putting sea we get the slurry and that is fixed[ vocalized-noise ]. Now, after the additive of this asbestos fiber, we get the fiber cement which have[ vocalized-noise] higher backbone compared to your originalstructure what can be obtained from the pulverization plaster .[ vocalized-noise] Then we will see something as your glass fibers, which is also a very useful fiber inorganicfiber what we can must be considered[ vocalized-noise] and we can use this or we are able to manufacture those fiberslike that of your textiles also. So, we can put in the textile fabric alsoor the textile like of these fibers we can have,[ vocalized-noise] like that of yourplastic material. So, the polymeric substance the nylon cloth[ vocalized-noise ]. So, the plastics could be reinforced by glassfiber. So, some plastic material if we can put orif we can put inside the correspond buttres material as your glass fibre,[ vocalized-noise] you can have a different type of information we can obtain[ vocalized-noise ]. So, large number of this type that implies, the optical fibre in pregnant plastics or the textile fibers in can have[ vocalized-noise ]. And now to simplify that classification of allthese things instead of paying a complicated mention of geological descent,[ vocalized-noise] we are able to have the normal A, B, C, D type of nomenclature[ vocalized-noise ]. So, the first selection is known as E-glass. What is E-glass, E-glass is nothing but yourtextile fiber glass[ vocalized-noise ]. So, E-glass will be made of a particular typeof glass, which is calcium aluminum boron silicate glass, because the glass we knowa particular various types of[ vocalized-noise] your beach silicon dioxide simply. So, where reference is framed boron in it, we get the borosilicateglass[ vocalized-noise ]. Then sometimes the quality of that particularglass can be improved by the addition of aluminium as well as calcium. And it can be used for your polymer reinforcementand application is in the often in the electrical sphere,[ vocalized-noise] becauseif “were having” this glass information we can have the insulation that represents, the[ vocalized-noise] corresponding embracing of the simple cable. The electrical wire mostly, because wewant to have the ordinary separation of the electrical cable for high voltage transmissionalso.So, the electrical engineering industry canbe very much dependent on this particular type of E-glass variety for its reinforcementin the polymer[ vocalized-noise] for coating of the cables[ vocalized-noise ]. Then the next one is the -Aglass, -Aglassis the very basic glass what we know that which is obtained from your sodium silicates ,[ vocalized-noise] which your soda-lime glass. So, sodium silicate as well as some calciumbased lime is added,[ vocalized-noise] calcium oxide is added or calcium carbonate is contributed. So, is it can have the less requiring lotion, but you are eligible to have the very basic material you can make for making this soda lime glass forit[ vocalized-noise ]. So, the third one is basically apart fromyour lime and alkali that implies, soda and lime you threw boron, boron previously we are familiar[ vocalized-noise] that boron can improve the quality of the correspond glassy textile[ vocalized-noise ]. So, it will have a high chemical resistancethat is why the borosilicate glasses we use that that of your corresponding, where theglass cables for our laboratory utilization or manufacture use for the chemical industry[ vocalized-noise ]. Then you are eligible to have the D-glass, another varietyafter C is the D for high dielectric requirements[ vocalized-noise ]. So, you reform simply by the correspondingglass type[ vocalized-noise] then we can have R-glass, S-glass and all different sorts ofglasses we can have,[ vocalized-noise] where you can have a high mechanical requisition at hightemperature. So, it can have high-pitched forte mechanical strengthwill be more and it can withstand a high temperature also[ vocalized-noise ]. Then the other assortment what we can think ofthat one is known as alkali-resistant glass, which is known as air glass[ vocalized-noise ]. So, you can applied once we have seen thatit can have a very high temperature weather if we use zirconium dioxide or zircon[ vocalized-noise ]. So, zircon containing glass with improvedresistance to alkali. So, we can have all hodgepodges, one can beof acid fight,[ vocalized-noise] one can be of alkali resistant, one can be oftemperature resistance[ vocalized-noise ]. So, these things can be very useful and somewill be simply chemical resistant that conveys, any other kind of chemical[ vocalized-noise] can be handled with the use of that special substance for attaining of any type of tube orany type of[ vocalized-noise] other resilient material for call[ vocalized-noise ]. So, the other one other most interesting oneis our use of your glass fibre, so that optical fibre what we know that optical fibercable[ vocalized-noise] in the communication sector, through electronics engineering peopleand electronics industry as well as the telecommunication industry is very much dependent on this particularfiber,[ vocalized-noise] but it has a conventional start of inorganic descent[ vocalized-noise ]. So, the industrial in organic chemistry canalso be benefited from the knowledge of drawing of glass fiber,[ vocalized-noise] how industrycan start for making this particular type of optical fiber[ vocalized-noise ]. So, what is that optical fiber, why it isspecially referred and specially crafted[ vocalized-noise ]. So, it can have a core glass design. So, so the core of this material the fiber, it can have a good core[ vocalized-noise] and this core is basically made up of glass[ vocalized-noise] with a high refractive index that makes, germanium dioxide or phosphoruspentoxide narcotic quartz glass, is a special variety of glass,[ vocalized-noise] we maynot get it ah naturally from world markets[ vocalized-noise ]. So, it is a special variety of glass and theprice of this glass would be therefore, definitely higher,[ vocalized-noise] because you improvethat to its implementation of its now high-pitched refractive index[ vocalized-noise] such that you can have thetotal internal thoughtfulnes[ vocalized-noise ]. You can have a material prism like materialand you go for total internal reflection[ vocalized-noise ]. So, total internal thinking will carry theinformation, carry the dawn, carry the send with that of your glass fiber[ vocalized-noise ]. And one is your cladding glass that claddingglass is dealing your core glass. So, the cladding glass will have a lower refractiveindex.So, any other type of[ vocalized-noise] normallyused glass, what we use in the laboratory also can be used[ vocalized-noise] such thatyour borosilicate glass or the fluorosilicate glass[ vocalized-noise ]. Sometime we can use the plastic material evenalso,[ vocalized-noise] like silicon resins also and the different kinds of fluoropolymersalso, “its not” that[ vocalized-noise] you can you have consumed other glass also,[ vocalized-noise] but your core is of different types. So, core glass is the important factor formaking this particular type of optical fiber[ vocalized-noise ]. So, we are able to have two steps basically for it, one is your step index fiber, so two types they are; so step index fiber and anotheris the pointed indicator fiber. So, step index fiber you modify the indexof your refractive index in a stepwise manner. So, constant refractive index in the fibercore[ vocalized-noise ]. So, you cannot change that special refractiveindex and another is the graded indicator fiber[ vocalized-noise] continuously decreasingthe refractive index from the fiber core to the outside of the fiber[ vocalized-noise ]. So, whatever refractive index you have atthe core which is decaying down, when you reach to the outer surface of the fiber,[ vocalized-noise] so that is the particular type of idea and special type of approach can be usedfor making this particular type of optical fiber[ vocalized-noise ]. So, step index fibers what we utilize or whatwe make are manufactured by which way[ vocalized-noise ]. So, step index fibers are manufactured byusing the baton and tube or the double crucible process. So, the process of making this particularstep index fiber is by pole tubing or the double crucible process[ vocalized-noise ]. In which particular process the core and thecladding glasses, because we have seen that we can have two different types of glasses; one is thecore glass, another is the cladding glass; one is that the core and another is coveringit[ vocalized-noise] or in the molten state.And they are in the molten nation separatelyfrom ultra unadulterated pulverization, because[ vocalized-noise] impurity will be a detrimental thing for allmaking of all these things. So, the integrity is very high that is why[ vocalized-noise] the costs of such glasses are very high, apart from its involvement of Ge O 2 or P 2 O 5[ vocalized-noise ]. The piety topics likewise, because we are dealingwith something of high-pitched precision textile. So, this high precision material you can haveonly if you have 99.999 percent integrity with respect to a particular variety[ vocalized-noise] or a particular material[ vocalized-noise ]. So, the core of this particular one is formedfrom the ultrapure gunpowder we its utilization and that ultrapure pulverizes are transferred into twocrucibles. So, you should have a very good idea or verygood knowledge about what is known as crucibles we know[ vocalized-noise ]. The very small crucibles, the nickel crucible, the porcelain crucible, the[ vocalized-noise] sintered basi glass crucible, use in the day-to-daylaboratory classes in all chemistry laboratory castes we use[ vocalized-noise ]. So, if we use it in a bigger size, it willbe of semi industrial proportion;[ vocalized-noise] but if we go for a much bigger size, it willbe of industrial scale[ vocalized-noise ]. So, your receptacle for doing all these reactionswill definitely be the crucible[ vocalized-noise ]. So, this particular case we can have two differenttwo types of crucibles we can have with a concentric orifice. So, you can have a crucible type of structurethat will see in our next class that what sort of these particular crucibles we canhave[ vocalized-noise ]. But the thing is that in the molten situation, because you can introduced the temperature increase[ vocalized-noise] for those working crucibles. So, the material within this crucible willbe in the molten case,[ vocalized-noise] and formerly you allow it to pass through someorifice. So, you are eligible to have the concentric orifice throughone “il be going” that particular core glass cloth, and on the outside will allow to pass thecorresponding cladding glass cloth[ vocalized-noise ]. At the bottom of that particular crucible, so crucibles are not having no outside transition at the bottom, but it will have the passagefrom the bottom[ vocalized-noise ]. And when it is guided, it is then coolingand the coldnes thing of this fiber is giving you the matching preparation of thisoptical fiber[ vocalized-noise ]. So, it is coming out as a thread out of this. So, one weave “ve come” at the core threadcovered with the cladding glass and which will be coming out at the bottom of that particularcrucible[ vocalized-noise ]. So, next day in our next class will considerthe corresponding design of that special crucible and how we utilize these things aretwo molten healths within two concentric crucibles is likely to be exploited[ vocalized-noise] for manufacturing of this particular type of optical fiber ok. Thank you very much ..

calcium carbonate

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