More than 4,500 several years ago, Finnish potterymakers detected a stone made use of thin fibers that mingled really well with the clay theyused to compile flowerpots. This stone was so strong, and yet adaptable, that they could use it to make their bowls thinner and bigger than ever. Plus, it wassurprisingly resistant to heat, so the jackpots could regard things like red-hot metal. It seemed like a supernatural stone, and eventually, the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians all started abusing it, more. That stone was what we now call asbestos, andeventually, we found out that it was too good to be true and stopped exerting it as much. But that took a while. The word asbestos actually refers to six differentminerals that all have the same habit, or channel that their crystals develop. Theyre called asbestiform, which time meansthat they stretch in long, thin, adaptable fibers. That opennes, plus their concentration andresistance to damage by hot and cruel substances, done these minerals fantastically useful in industry.The difficulty is, breath asbestos fibers can be dangerous.Because to your lungs, those resilient fibersare more like sharp-witted little shards. You are likely imagine what happens if youbreathe them in: they get stuck in the mucus rowing of your lungs, which can make it difficultto breathe. Inhale too many shards over occasion, and theycan cause cankers like asbestosis, or disfiguring of the lungs, and mesothelioma, a type oflung cancer. The different forms of asbestos with the most prominent healthrisks are a part of a group of rock-and-rolls called amphiboles, and what fixes them justification morehealth problems than others comes down to four of their chemical and structural properties.First, amphibole fibers are smaller, so theycan jaunt deeper into the lungs. Theyre too sharper, so they can pierceyour lungs more easily, beginning irritation or procreating disfigure material. Plus, theyre hydrophobic, or water-avoiding, which can keep them from terminating in mucus — if they melted, they could be coughedup and get out of your arrangement. Eventually, they contain iron, which can reactwith oxygen in your lungs and injury the DNA in your lung cadres. The damaged DNA can then originate the cells todivide too quickly, leading to a tumor. So they may be more carcinogenic, or cancer organizing, as well. So, how did asbestos lead from being the miracle-rockof ancient potters to the scourge of modern industry? Even as far back as the Roman Empire, some2, 000 several years ago, historians wrote about slaves get what they called a sickness ofthe lungs after working in asbestos mines. And when the first commercial asbestos minesopened in Quebec in 1879, asbestos-related health concerns started registering up in medicaljournals and subject reports. One of the first well-studied fatalities was in1 924 in the UK.Nellie Kershaw, whod been revolving asbestos into recital since she was1 3, died at the age of 33 from asbestosis. When Parliament heard about the speciman, theyasked a doctor known as E. R. A. Merewether to investigate the health of asbestos workers. For two years, he studied 374 craftsmen at anasbestos textile factory. He pointed out that inhaling asbestos fibers started scarring in the lungs– and 17 out of 20 workers who had been there for more than 20 times ceased up with asbestosis. Merewether portrayed his paper to parliamentin 1930, and the UK started necessary breathing in asbestos plants a year later. But it wasnt until 2003 that asbestos wasbanned right across the european union. The asbestos industry in the United Statesis a whole other story.Asbestos was employed a good deal during World War II, since it was cheap, strong, and resistant to fire and compounds. Naval war carries usedasbestos separation, and constructs were constructed with asbestos floor tiles, shingles, cements, and insularity for pipes. Production of asbestos in the United Statesfinally started to slow down 1979, when nine asbestos makes filed a lawsuit againstthe federal government departments. In 1975, theyd give $69,000 to an asbestosworker who developed asbestosis, and they wanted to be reimbursed. But the government wouldnt have any ofthat. Instead, they proved that the companies knew about, and had been hiding, asbestos-relatedhealth information for decades.The bag was a lot of media attention, andpeople started to try to fix the problem by removing asbestos from builds. But theUS still hasnt alone restricted the use of asbestos. Even so, asbestos wont generate health issuesfor most people. Most of the fibers are so tightly secured intoanother material that they won’t escape into the air unless youre trying to remove theasbestos. Plus, each year we each breathe about a millionfibers just from the natural erosion of asbestos-containing stones. So unless youre an asbestos proletarian whosspent a lot of years without a ventilation cover-up, or youre an ancient Finnish potter, you probably dont have to worry about coming an asbestos-related illness.Thanks for watching this occurrence of SciShow, which was brought to you by our patrons on Patreon. If you want to help support thisshow, just go to patreon.com/ scishow. And dont forget to go to youtube.com/ scishowand subscribe !.